Deities

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“All Godhood is good, free from passion, free from change… Neither are they separate from the first cause nor from one another, just as thoughts are not separate from mind nor acts of knowledge from the soul. “
-Sallustius (On the Gods and the Cosmos, I-II)

Julian Hellenism is a polytheistic religion, meaning it has a belief in many Gods (Latin: Dii, Greek: Theoi). Iamblichus refers to the Gods as monoeides, meaning “in the form of singularity” (Clark 2010, 56-57), which tells us that the Gods share a single unity as emanatory manifestations within Their singular divine source, the One Supra-Essential Godhead (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 379), as unity precedes the existence of multiplicity (Sallustius, V). This makes the religion monolatrous, where a distinct inferior being emanates from a superior being and participates in its progenitor. This starts with the One, which subsequently spawns the many Gods (Henads) through simple multiplication of itself into a multitude (and thus preserving most of its attributes, as everything is multiplied oneness), who functions as horizontal extensions of the same power, who ultimately leads back to that unity. This means that all of the Gods are unending, perfect and unborn, each with an infinity of attributes, as They are not “separate from the first cause nor from one another” (Sallustius, II). Though the Gods are supra-essential and beyond Being (hyperousios), the bottom level of one hypostasis is considered to be the top level of the next, and thus the Gods are simultaneously understood to possess substance (Ousia) at the summits of Being, and thus are Being’s first principles. Following the Gods are the Greater Kinds, including human souls, who spawn from the Gods and participate in Them. This plurality which derives from the One is made up of “different states or appearances of a single substance” (Urmson 1991, 259), or Ousia, which makes up everything with the quality of Ontos (Being), from the bodies of the Gods to the Greater Kinds and ultimately us, making the religion a form of substance monism. Julian Hellenism is also a panentheistic religion, with the divine being concurrently both transcendent and immanent, looking over our universe from the outside while also animating it and manifesting throughout the cosmos through a divine illumination which fills all things eternally.

The Gods are eternal Beings, their origins being prior to the creation of time. They are living immortals who surround and permeating unhindered the entire material universe and act on it. The Gods are not subject to Fate, but rather lay above it and overlook Providence (Sallustius, IX). Their wisdom sees the whole, and so their light puts us on the right path and brings to pass what is best (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 261-263). They are the causes of all that is now and all that shall be, and though They are not seen by us, They can direct their divine gaze, which is more powerful than any light, towards useven as far as our hidden thoughts (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 323). They are wholly beyond our physical universe and by directing the Logoi (Logic), thoughts that are lower manifestations of the higher principle (e.g., the Forms), and Anagne (Necessity), the moral and natural cause which compels nature, They create the cosmos and produce its laws (Plato Timaeus, 48a).

The divine are Beings (Ontos), not persons (prosopon), as persons denotates human limits which the Gods lack because They are so beyond us. They do not intervene in the realms of actions of other Gods, cease to exist, or combine into one. The soul of a God can be understood in three parts: Essence, Powers, and Activity:

  • Their Essence/Substance (Ousia) is their inner-most and most fundamental independent self. Their essence is “at the summit [of existence], and transcendent and perfect” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7)Their essence is wholly intelligible and beyond our material realm, and their bodies present in the material cosmos, such as the stars and the planets, are merely ruled from the outside. They do not have either gender or any other characteristic of mortal beings, as their substance is entirely alien to us. Their movements are spherical, and thus perfect. The Gods share a divine genus that is “dominant in them throughout, [which] establishes one and the same essence [(i.e., ousia)] throughout the whole” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17-18). This essence is “simple, as it is without parts, so also it is indivisible, and as it is invariable, so also is it not subject to change” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17), and thus the Gods are “homogeneous in all respects, entirely united among themselves, uniform and non-composite” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17).
  • Their Power (Dunamis) is their potential expression of their essence. A God’s power “can achieve all things simultaneously, in the present instant, unitarily” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7).
  • Their Activity (Energeia) is their powers in action. The activities of the Gods are uniform (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.17). A God’s activities “generates and governs all things without inclining towards them” (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.6-7). The Gods concern Themselves with things of this world and perform activities, however They do not perform these activities out of need since They are perfect and thus without need. This nature links back to the One. Plotinus’ description of the activity of the One is that it overflows of its superabundance (Uždavinys 2009, 27). It gains nothing from this overflowing, nor has any need to overflow. Rather, it is simply its nature, and hence in turn it is also simply in the nature of the divine. The Gods are above Necessity (Plato Timaeus, 45a), which isn’t to be confused with want or nature.

Knowledge of the divine is not attainable in mere belief [doxa], but rather, it is a natural tendency which is innate in all people (Iamblichus De Mysteriis, I.2-3), because whether in private or public, whether as individuals or as peoples, there exists a universal striving towards divinity, for we all believe, even without being taught, in the existence of something divine (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 321), for there is no one who does not raise their hands to heaven in prayer when they swear by the Gods; if they have any notion at all of the divine, they will turn heavenward, and it was very natural that people should feel thus (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 323). It in this innate understanding that we can find true knowledge of the divine, which is not easily comprehended, nor is it able to be easily communicated, for no one in the world can adequately describe the true greatness of the divine without failing to a certain extent in their attempt (Flavius Claudius Iulianis, III 357).

The Gods are beyond us and need nothing, and we worship Them because They are beings worthy of worship, being so beyond us and responsible for all kinds of good and no evil. As a result of this it can be understood that worship, prayer, and sacrifice aren’t given to the Gods to “appease” Them. The Gods are not angry with sinners, for to be angry would be to passion. The Gods do not rejoice- for what rejoices also grieves. Nor are They appeased by gifts – for if They were, They would also be conquered by pleasure. The Gods are always good, always do good and never do injustice, instead always being in the same state and like Themselves. Rather, when we are good, we are joined and cling to the Gods when we show likeness to Them by living according to virtue, and when we become evil we make the Gods our enemies – not because They are angered against us, but because our sins prevent the light of the Gods from shining upon us, and thus putting us in communion with spirits of punishment (Sallustius, XIV). If by prayers and sacrifices we find forgiveness of sins, we do not appease or change the Gods, but instead, by turning toward the divine, we heal our own badness and so again enjoy the eternal and infinite goodness of the Gods (Sallustius, XIV). To say that the Gods turn away from evil is like saying that the Sun hides Himself from the blind. Because of this, it is to be correctly understood that we provide the Gods with worship ultimately for our own benefit, since the Gods need nothing; and worship is done by exposing ourselves to Their divine radiance (Sallustius, XIV).

 

The Three Suns

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“I pray that Helios, the King of the All, may be gracious to me in recompense for this my zeal; and may he grant me a virtuous life and more perfect wisdom and inspired intelligence, and, when fate wills, the gentlest exit that may be from life, at a fitting hour; and that I may ascend to him thereafter and abide with him, for ever if possible, but if that be more than the actions of my life deserve, for many periods of many years!”
-Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus (III, 433-435)

Plotinus’ description of the activity of the One is that it overflows of its superabundant goodness (Uždavinys 2009, 27). A corollary of this overflowing is that the lower entities proceed from the highest entity. This is reflected in three suns, with each being direct vertical emanations of the ruler prior to it, which illuminates three separate spheres of existence with the gift of intelligible light, which manifests differently in each realm. The Gods of that realm are that ruler’s horizontal emanations, and all having their effect on the lower.

It is of note that this entire process happens wholly within the Intelligible level, hence why the Gods’ Substance (Ousia) is also understood to be Intelligible while their Activities (Energeia) lies at their level of concern (e.g., Intellective for an Intellective God).

Intelligible Sun

Plato writes that “eternity [aion] remains in the One” (Plato Timaeus, 37d5), which tells us that the Intelligible Sun, Aion, is a horizontal extension of the One. Aion is the first sun, the Pre-Essential Demiurge, who lies between the ineffable One and the Intelligible Realm. They rule at the summit of the Intelligible Realm over the Intelligible Gods, horizontal emanations from Him. Aion provides Them the life-light which sustains and nourishes Them, granting Them “endless beauty and superabundance of generative power and perfect reason” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 429) and allowing Them to think in a unitary mode.

Intellective Sun

Aion then has a vertical emanation who proceeds “from the generative substance of the Good [the One]” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 429). This second sun is Zeus-Helios, “the genuine son of the Good” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 395) who lies between the Intelligible and Intellective Realms. Zeus-Helios is the “middle of the middle, connecting all of the realms below Him with those above Him” (Finamore 1985, 139), acting as the mean between the immaterial cosmos and the visible encosmic cosmos.

Being “appointed by the Good to rule and govern” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 361) over the Intellective Realm, Zeus-Helios rules its summit, ruling over the Intellective Gods, who are horizontal emanations of Him who He “contains in himself” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 431) and had “came forth and came into being together with” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 361). This is so “the cause which resembles the Good,” i.e., Zeus-Helios, may guide the Intellective Gods “to blessings for them all, and may regulate all things according to pure reason” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 361). Zeus-Helios attains the Intelligible light from Aion and then transmits it into the Intellective Realm (Finamore 1985, 134), filling it with the energy of Nous (or intellect) and illuminating those same gifts that Aion grants the Intelligible Gods upon the Intellective Gods, bringing blessings for Them all and filling Them with “continuity and endless beauty and superabundance of generative power and perfect reason” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 429) (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 361), all at once and independently of time (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 429). This bestows upon Them the faculty of thought and being comprehended by thought (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 397), the mode of thinking being dual, Form and Mind. The gift of Beauty at the Intellective level of Zeus-Helios is manifested as an eternal Form, the Form of Beauty.

Encosmic Sun

The third sun is the visible Encosmic Sun, a manifestation of Zeus-Helios in the visible realm who lays “between the [Intellective] noeric and [Encosmic] visible realm” (Finamore 1985, 139). Through the Encosmic Sun, Zeus-Helios delivers the Intellective rays into our visible cosmos and illuminates the entire visible cosmos– the Encosmic and Sub-lunar realms. The Encosmic Sun is the active principle of Helios in our realm (Finamore 1985, 138), perfecting and harmonizing the powers that the other Gods give to the earth (Finamore 1985, 138). Through His rays Zeus-Helios grants us sustained life with His warmth, and sight which grants us clearance and mirrors goodness.

The sun governs our Encosmic Realm by embracing matter within Himself to impose order on it. This is the expression of Helios that is known for His centrality among the planets “in order to assign goods” to the other visible Gods who “proceed from him and with him”, and to “rule the planets, stars, and the realm of generation” (Finamore 1985, 138). We can thus understand that visible Gods (i.e., the stars and planets) are horizontal emanations of the sun, created by Zeus-Helios from the sun (Finamore 1985, 138). Through His radiance He blesses the Encosmic Gods with the same Intelligible gifts as He does the Intellective Gods, perfecting them and allowing Them to be made visible in the universe (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 367). Zeus-Helios fills the whole heavens with the same number of Gods as He contains in Himself in Intellective form (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 431). And without division the visible Encosmic Gods “reveal Themselves in manifold form surrounding” the sun, but They are attached to Him “to form a unity” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 431). The mode of thinking at the level of the Encosmic Sun is multiple, extending over time and in varying ways; and the gift of Beauty is manifested visually, with all which that entails.

Furthermore, through His “perpetual generation and the blessings” that He bestows from the heavenly bodies, He holds together the Sub-Lunar Realm (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, III 431). “Contained” within Himself is the Sub-Lunar Demiurge, identified as Asklepios and Dionysos. Unlike Zeus-Helios, the Sub-Lunar Demiurge is an imitator, rather than a creator. They are called “image-maker,” eidolopoios, and “purifier of souls,” kathartis psychon. As souls descend into generation, Dionysos removes from them logoi inappropriate to their nature, and Asklepios attempts to give those souls a life appropriate to the logoi properly belonging to them. In doing so the Sub-Lunar Demiurge also deeply binds the soul into the Realm of Generation. They are the Master Daimons, megistos daimon, especially over Personal Daimons.

 

The Olympians

Greek_-_Procession_of_Twelve_Gods_and_Goddesses_-_Walters_2340

Fragment of a relief (1st century BCE – 1st century ACE) in the Walters Art Museum which depicts the Twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), and Apollo (lyre).

The Olympians, otherwise known as the Dii Consentes, are the twelve divine Hypercosmic powers of Hellenism. The Olympians are comprised of six Gods and six Goddesses. The concept of twelve Gods is ancient and sacred, being older than any extant Greek or Roman source, though truly coming to fruition in ancient Athens. It is understood to have been present among the Etruscans as well. In Rome, the statues of the Olympians stood in the Forum and later the Porticus Deorum Consentium, one of the last public Hellenic shrines that were still functional in Late Antiquity.

The Hypercosmic Gods are offspring of Zeus-Helios, being made up of twelve powers. Hypercosmic Gods hold the function of Perfection. This pantheon of twelve divinities expresses the complete and perfect divine fifth element which fulfills and binds the Cosmos together, aether, which is symbolized by the dodecahedron. The Olympians are:

 

Divinities of the Ancient Hellenes: A Theological Encyclopedia

For the purposes of this list, if something is not explicitly called a God, and it has no cultus or special role in relation to a God, it will not be given a page. Abstract concepts merely spoken of poetically as a Daimōn does not give it theological weight. These can merely be forces in the soul or nature that are purely descriptive. And further, in Julian Hellenism, it is understood that vices have no positive existence within the soul.

Since Emperor Julian writes that the Romans are Greeks, Roman divinities will be included in this list.

  • Abeona: Goddess who protects children leaving the home.
  • Abundantia: Goddess of luck, abundance and prosperity. She distributed food and money from a cornucopia.
  • Acca Larentia: Adoptive mother of Romulus and Remus who was worshiped during the festival of Larentalia.
  • Adeona: Goddess who guides children back home.
  • Achelous: God of the Achelous River.
  • Acis: Daimon of the Acis River in Sicily.
  • Aeolos: God of the wind.
  • Aequitas: God of fair trade and honest merchants.
  • Aera Cura: Goddess associated with the underworld.
  • Adêphagia: Goddess of agricultural bounty worshiped in Sicily.
  • Adonis: God of beauty, desire, and vegetation.
  • Adrasteia: A Nymph who in secret nurtured the infant Zeus in the Dictaean cave.
  • Agon: Daimon of contest who had an altar at Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games.
  • Agathos Daimon: Daimon of the vineyards and grainfields.
  • Aion (Aeternitas): Eternity.
  • Aius Locutius: God associated with saving Rome from Gallic invasion.
  • Alemonia: Goddess who feeds unborn children.
  • Amphitrite (Salacia): Goddess of the Sea and wife of Poseidon.
  • Ananke (Necessitas): The Goddess of necessity.
  • Anemoi (Venti): Gods of the wind.
  • Angerona: Protective Goddess who relieves people from pain and sorrow.
  • Angitia: Goddess of healing and patron of snake-charmers.
  • Anna Perenna: Nymph of the New Year and provider of food.
  • Anteros: Daimon of reciprocated love and the avenger of the unrequited.
  • Anthousai: Nymphs of flowers.
  • Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of love.
    • Astarte: Goddess of war & beauty.
    • Cloacina: A ferility Goddess who also presides over sewers.
  • Apollon (Apollo): God of the arts, oracles, knowledge, medicine, light, and plague.
  • Arete (Virtus): A Daimon of bravery and military strength, often worshiped alongside Honos within Rome at a temple in the Porta Capena.
  • Ares (Mars): God of destruction, war, courage, soldiers, farmers, and agriculture.
  • Ariadne (Arianna): Goddess of the labyrinths, mazes, paths, vegetation, fertility, wine, and snakes.
  • Aristaios (Aristaeus): Rustic God of beekeeping worshiped in many parts of Greece.
  • Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, forests and hills, the moon, and archery.
    • Artemis Ephesia: Mother Goddess of Ephesus.
    • Bendis: Thracian cult of Artemis associated with the moon and the hunt.
  • Asklepios (Aesculapius, Vejovis): God of healing, resurrection, and salvation.
  • Athene (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom, civilization, law and justice, inspiration, courage, strength, strategic warfare, strategy, mathematics, the arts, crafts, and skill
    • Athena-Allāt: Athena of the Near East.
  • Attis: Phrygian solar God of vegetation, fertility, and rebirth.
  • Aura: Goddess of breezes.
  • Aurai: Nymphs of the breeze.
  • Averronkos (Averruncus): A God of avoiding calamity.
  • Bona Dea: Goddess of chastity and fertility in women, healing, and the protection of the Romans; solely worshiped by women.
  • Britomartis: Also called Diktynna, She is Goddess of mountains and hunting.
  • Bubona: Goddess of cattle. It’s possible that the festival of cattle (ludi boum causa) mentioned by Pliny was dedicated to Her. Those who celebrated the rites were called Bubetii.
  • Caca: A hearth Goddess who had a shrine which was likely somewhere in Rome.
  • Camenae: Four Nymphs of wells and springs, whose place of worship was the sacred grove of Carmentis at the Port Capena. These Nymphs are:
    • Carmenta: Nymph of childbirth and prophecy.
    • Egeria: Nymph who was consort to King Numa.
    • Antevorta: Also called Porrima, She is a Nymph of the future.
    • Postverta: Nymph of the past.
  • Candelifera: Goddess of childbirth.
  • Cardea: Goddess of thresholds and door hinges.
  • Carmentes: Also called the Carmentae, they are companions of the Goddess Carmenta. During childbirth, prayers are offered to summon the Carmentes to preside over the labor.
    • Antevorta: Also called Porrima, She is a Nymph of the future. She is present when the feet of the baby come first.
    • Postvorta: She is Nymph of the past, and is present at the birth when the baby is born head-first.
  • Carnea: A Nymph of the door handles, the heart, and other organs. Her festival is on the Kalends of June.
  • Chloris (Flora): Nymph associated with spring, flowers and new growth.
  • Clementia: Goddess of mercy and clemency.
  • Coelus: God of the sky.
  • Collatina: Goddess of hills.
  • Conditor: God of the harvest.
  • Consus: God of grain storage.
  • Convector: God of bringing in of the crops from the fields.
  • Copia: Goddess of wealth and plenty.
  • Cunina: Goddess who watcher over and protects infants in their cradles.
  • Dea Dia: Goddess of growth worshiped during Ambarvalia.
  • Dea Tacita: Goddess of the dead whose worship was established by King Numa.
  • Deo (Ceres): Goddess of agriculture, fertility, harvest, and sacred law.
  • Despoina: Daughter of Deo worshiped in Arcadia.
  • Deverra: A Goddess who protects midwives and women in labour. She is symbolized by a broom which is used to sweep away evil influences, and as such is associated with the brooms which are used to purify temples in preparation for various worship services, sacrifices and celebrations.
  • Dike (Jus, Justitia): Goddess of justice.
  • Dionysos (Liber): God of ecstasy, liberation, and salvation.
    • Iacchos (Iacchus): A minor deity worshiped at Athens and Eleusis in connection with the Eleusinian mysteries.
  • Dioskouroi: The twins Castor and Pollux, who were transformed into the constellation Gemini.
  • Disciplina: Goddess of discipline worshiped by soldiers.
  • Dius Fidus: God of oaths.
  • Domiduca & Domitius: Marriage divinities who accompanies the bridal procession as the couple arrives at their new home together on the wedding night.
  • Dryades: Tree Nymphs.
    • Hamadryades: Dryad nymphs who are bounded to a specific tree.
  • Eileithyia (Lucina): Goddess of childbirth.
  • Eirene (Pax): Goddess of peace.
  • Ekekheiria (Ececheiria): Daimon of truce and armistice. She was honoured at Olympia when a general armistice was declared among the states.
  • Eleos (Misericordia, Clementia): Daimon of mercy, pity and compassion who had an altar in Athens.
  • Eleutheria (Libertas): Goddess of liberty.
  • Elpis (Spes): Goddess of hope.
  • Empanda: Goddess of openness, friendliness and generosity. She had a sanctuary near the gate which led to the capitol.
  • Endovelicus: Chthonic God of medicine.
  • Enyalios: War God who is the son of Ares and Enyo.
  • Enyo (Bellona): Goddess of war.
  • Eos (Aurora): Goddess of the dawn.
    • Matuta: Latin Goddess of the dawn, harbors and the Sea. Patron deity of newborn babies.
  • Epimelides: Nymphs of meadows and pastures who nourish and protect the herds and flocks of cattle, goats and sheep which graze their lands. Guardians of fruit-trees.
  • Epidotes: Daimon of ritual purification worshiped in Sparta.
  • Epona: Protector of equines.
  • Erecura: Chthonic Gallo-Roman Goddess.
  • Erinyes (Dirae): Also called the Furies, Goddesses of vengeance.
  • Eris (Discordia): Goddess of discord and strife.
  • Eros (Cupid): God of attraction.
  • Euboulos: God of ploughing and sowing of seed.
  • Eukleia (Eucleia): Daimon of good repute and glory who was worshiped in Boeotia, Locris, and Macedonia.
  • Eunomia: One of the Horai, She is a Goddess of good order, civil order, good laws, lawful behaviour.
  • Eurynome: Oceanid Nymph worshiped at a sanctuary near the confluence of rivers called the Neda and the Lymax in the Peloponnese.
  • Eventus Bonus: God of success both in commerce and in agriculture.
  • Fabulinus: God who taught children to speak and receives an offering when a child speaks their first words.
  • Falacer: God of the grove.
  • Fauna: Female counterpart to Pan.
  • Faustitas: Goddess who is the protector of herds of livestock.
  • Febris: Goddess who protected people against fevers.
  • Felicitas: Goddess of good luck.
  • Feronia: Goddess of health, fertility, abundance, wildlife, and freedom. She was often worshiped by ex-slaves who attained freedom.
  • Flora: Goddess of spring and the blooming flowers.
  • Fontus: Also named Fons, He is a God of wells and springs whose religious festival, the Fontinalia, is held on October 13
  • Fornax: Goddess of bread baking and ovens.
  • Fulgora: Goddess of lightning.
  • Furrina: Goddess of springs.
  • Glaukos (Glaucus): Prophetic Purified Soul associated with the seas.
  • Glykon (Glycon): Serpentine God.
  • Harmonia (Concordia): Also called Homonoia, She is the Goddess of harmony, agreement, and understanding.
  • Harpocrates: Mystical God of silence.
  • Hebe (Juventas): Goddess of youth.
  • Hedone (Volupta): Goddess of delight and daughter born from the union of Cupid and Psyche.
  • Hekaterides: Goddess of rustic dance.
  • Hekateros: God of dance and handwork.
  • Hephaistos (Vulcanus): God of the forge, metallurgy, and volcanoes.
  • Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods; Goddess of marriage and protector of women
    • Caelestis (Tanit): Carthaginian Hera.
    • Cinxia: Goddess of marriage.
    • Quiritis: Goddess of motherhood.
  • Herakles (Hercules): God of strength, gatekeeper of Olympus, and the saviour and protector of mankind.
    • Melkarth: Carthaginian Heracles.
  • Hermaphroditos: Also called Aphroditos, He is a God of unions, androgyny, marriage, sexuality and fertility.
  • Hermes (Mercurius): Messenger of the Gods and God of commerce, travel, and shepherds.
    • Hermanubis: Graeco-Egyptian God of the Priests in the search for truth.
    • Hermes Trismegistus: God of mysteries and author of the Hermetic Corpus.
  • Heron: The Thracian rider God, who was worshiped as a saviour deity.
  • Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth.
  • Hippolytus (Virbius): A forest God whose worship was associated with the cult of Aphrodite.
  • Honos: A Daimon of chivalry, honor and military justice often worshiped alongside the deity Arete.
  • Horai: Goddesses of seasons and the natural portions of time.
  • Hormes: Daimon of effort and eagerness who was worshiped in Athens.
  • Hygieia (Salus): Goddess of good health and sanitation.
  • Hymen: God of weddings, reception, marriage
  • Hypnos (Somnus, Sopor): God of sleep.
  • Iacchos: God who is understood as founder of the Eleusinian mysteries.
  • Iana: Goddess of arches and the moon.
  • Ianos (Janus): God of time, beginnings, and ends.
  • Indiges (Aeneas): Deified soul of Aeneas, the leader of the Trojan refugees.
  • Intercidona: A Goddess who protects midwives and women in labour.
  • Iris (Arcus): Goddess of rainbows and messenger of the Gods. She was worshiped by Delians and offered cakes made of dried figs, wheat, and honey.
  • Jugatinus: A conjugal God.
  • Juturna: Goddess of lakes, wells and springs.
  • Kabiri: Group of chthonic deities.
  • Karme: Goddess of the harvest.
  • Kekropidai: Three sister-Goddesses who were the daughters of Cecrops I, usually worshiped by Athenians.
    • Aglaurus
    • Herse
    • Pandrosus
  • Kharites (Gratiae): Also called the Graces, they are Daimons of beauty, human creativity, charm, nature, and fertility.
    • Aglaia: Also named Kharis and Kale, She is a Daimon of beauty, splendour, glory, magnificence, adornment
    • Euphrosyne: Also named Euthymia, She is a Daimon of joy and mirth.
    • Thalia: A Daimon of festivity and rich banquets.
  • Kore (Proserpina): Goddess of the underworld, springtime, flowers and vegetation.
    • Isis: Goddess of motherhood.
  • Korymbos (Corymbus): Rustic Daimon of the fruit of the ivy.
  • Kronos (Saturn): God of agriculture, the harvest, generation, time, dissolution, plenty, wealth, periodic renewal, and liberation.
  • Lacturnus: A deity who infuses crops with “milk” (juice or sap).
  • Lares, Penates & Genii: Gods of the domestic space.
  • Laverna: Chthonic Goddess of gain.
  • Leto (Latona): Goddess of womanly modesty and motherhood.
  • Leucothea: A Nymph of the Sea.
  • Libera: Goddess of liberation and female fertility.
  • Libertas: Goddess of freedom.
  • Libitina: Goddess of funerals whose grove was located on the Esquiline Hill.
  • Lima: Roman Goddess of thresholds.
  • Lubentina: A Goddess of funerals and burial.
  • Manes: Similar to the Lares, Genii and Di Penates. They were the souls of deceased loved ones.
  • Mania: Goddess of the dead.
  • Manturna: A conjugal Goddess who lets a couple remain together.
  • Meditrina: Goddess of wine and health whose festival, the Meditrinalia, is observed on October 11.
  • Mefitas: Goddess of poisonous vapors which emit from the ground in swamps and volcanic vapors who protects people from malaria.
  • Mellona: Goddess and protector of bees.
  • Men (Lunus): God of lunar months.
  • Mena: Roman Goddess of menstruation.
  • Mens: Roman Goddess of mind and consciousness whose festival was May 8.
  • Messia: Agricultural Goddess. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Secia and Tutelina, had three pillars with altars before them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Messor: God of agriculture and mowing.
  • Meter Theon (Rhea-Cybele, Ops): Goddess of theurgy, mother of the Gods, and wife of Zeus-Helios.
    • Rhea (Ops): Agricultural mother Goddess.
    • Ge (Terra): Goddess of the Earth.
    • Hekate (Trivia): Goddess of theurgy, crossroads, and the guardian of roads.
  • Mithras: Solar God of light and salvation.
  • Moirai (Parcae): Also called the Fates, three Goddesses of fate.
  • Mogounos: God of righteousness.
  • Moneta: Goddess of prosperity.
  • Mousai (Musae): Also called the Muses, they are Goddesses of the literature, science, and the arts.
  • Mutunus Tutunus: Fertility God associated with marriage with a shrine at the Velian Hill.
  • Naiades: Also called Hydriades, they are Nymphs of streams, brooks, fountains, wells, springs, and other bodies of fresh water. Some are among the Okeanids, daughters of the earth-encircling river Okeanos, while others are born of local River divinities.
  • Nehalennia: Goddess of trading, shipping, and possibly horticulture and fertility.
  • Nemestrinus: God of groves and the woods.
  • Nemesis (Invidia, Rivalitas): Also named Adrasteia, She is the Goddess of retribution.
  • Nenia: Goddess of funerals who had a sanctuary beyond the Porta Viminalis.
  • Nereides: Nymphs of the Sea and daughters of the God Nereos. They were worshiped in parts of Greece.
  • Nereos: God of the Sea and father of the Nereids, worshiped at Gythium in Laconia.
  • Nikaia: A Nymph and daughter of the Great Mother who was worshiped in the Bithynian town of Nikaia.
  • Nike (Victoria): Goddess of victory.
    • Vica Pota: Another form of the Goddess Nike who was worshiped in early Rome. Her shrine was located at the foot of the Velian Hill.
  • Nodutus: The divinity who causes the “knot” (nodus in Latin) or node to form.
  • Nundina: Goddess of the ninth day, on which the newborn child was given a name.
  • Nymphai: Also called Nymphs, they are a class of worldly spirits in our realm of generation.
  • Nysos: Daimon of Mount Nysa.
  • Nyx (Nox): Goddess of the night. By large She is often associated in the worship of other Gods, however had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara.
  • Obarator: God of ploughing.
  • Occator: God of harrowing.
  • Okeanos: Primordial Titan of the earth-encircling river
  • Okeanids: Nymphs who are three thousand daughters of Okeanos and Tethys. Their numbers include some of the Anthousai, Aurai, Dryades, Epimelides, Leimonides, Naiades, and Nephelai.
  • Oneiroi: Gods and Daimons who rule over dreams, nightmares, and oneiromancy.
  • Orbona: Goddess of parents who lost their children.
  • Oreiades: Nymphs of mountains. Their members include some of the Epimelides, Hamadryades, and Naiades.
  • Ourea: God of mountains.
  • Paean: Physician of the Gods.
  • Palaimon (Portunus): Sea God associated with keys, doors, livestock and ports. He is the guardian of storehouses and locked doors.
  • Palatua: Goddess who guards the Palatine Hill.
  • Pales: God of shepherds, flocks and livestock whose festival, the Parilia, is celebrated on April 21.
  • Pan (Faunus, Lupercus): God of shepherds and flocks, rustic music, the wilds, and the nature of mountain wilds. He is the companion of the nymphs and protector of cattle.
    • Inuus: A deity associated with the Lupercalia festival.
  • Patelana: The Goddess who opens up the grain.
  • Peitho (Suadela): Goddess of persuasion in romance, seduction and love. She is worshiped in conjunction with Aphrodite.
  • Phales: God of phallic processions.
  • Phorkys: Primordial God of the Sea.
  • Picmunus & Pilumnus: Picmunus is a rustic God of agriculture, fertility, matrimony, infants and children. His brother Pilumnus is a rustic God who protects midwives and women in labour who ensures children grow properly and remain healthy.
  • Pistis (Fides): Goddess of faithfulness and good faith.
  • Plouton (Dis Pater, Orcus): God of the underworld and the riches of the earth. Also a God of oaths and punisher of perjurers.
    • Sarapis (Serapis): Alexandrian Plutoun.
  • Ploutos (Plutus): God of wealth apparently important to the Eleusinian Mysteries.
  • Poseidon (Neptunus): Lord of the Sea, storms, earthquakes, soil, and horses.
  • Pomona: Goddess of fruitful abundance.
  • Pontus: Primordial God of the Sea.
  • Porus: God of plenty.
  • Potamoi (Flumina): Gods of rivers and streams worshiped all throughout the Hellenic world.
  • Potina: Goddess of children’s drinks.
  • Priapus: Rustic God of garden fertility.
  • Prometheus: Trickster God and benefactor of mankind.
  • Proteus: Primordial seer of the Sea.
  • Providentia: Goddess of forethought.
  • Pudicitia: Goddess of modesty and chastity.
  • Puta: Goddess of the pruning of vines and trees.
  • Quirinus: National tutelary divinity of the Romans.
  • Robigus: Also called in feminine Robigo, they are a divinity who averts overwhelming heat and blight from young cornfields.
  • Roma: Goddess of Rome.
  • Rosmerta: Goddess of fertility and abundance.
  • Rumina: Goddess of nursing mothers.
  • Runcina: A Goddess of weeding and mowing.
  • Rusina: Goddess of the fields.
  • Sancus: God of oaths and good faith.
  • Saritor: God of weeding and hoeing.
  • Secia: An agricultural Goddess. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Tutelina and Messia, had three pillars with altars before them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Seia: Goddess who protects the seed once it’s sewn into the earth.
  • Selene (Luna): Goddess of the Moon.
  • Semonia, Setia, and Segetia: Agricultural deities who are Goddesses of sowing.
  • Silenos: Companion and tutor to Dionysos.
  • Silvanus: God of the forests.
  • Sirona: Celtic Goddess associated with healing springs whose attributes are eggs and snakes.
  • Stata Mater: Goddess who guards against fires.
  • Sterquilinus: God of fertilizer.
  • Stimula: Goddess who incites passion in women.
  • Strenua: Goddess of strength and vigor.
  • Suadela: Goddess of persuasion, especially in matters of love.
  • Subigus: Tutelary God of the wedding night.
  • Subrincinator: God of weeding.
  • Sucellus: Chthonic protective deity.
  • Summanus: God of nocturnal thunder whose temple was west of the Circus Maximus.
  • Telephos: Son of Herakles and Auge. He was worshiped in Arcadia.
  • Telete: Daimon of the Bacchic initiation rites.
  • Tempestes: Goddesses of storms and sudden weather who had a temple dedicated to Her near the Porta Capena by Lucius Cornelius Scipio, a consul during the First Punic War.
  • Terminus: God who protects boundary markers.
  • Thalassa: Primordial Goddess of the Sea.
  • Theisoa: A Nymph worshiped at Theisoa in Arcadia.
  • Themis: Titan Goddess of divine law and order.
  • Thryiai: Goddess of divination by pebbles and bird omens.
  • Tiberinus: Daimon of the Tiber River.
  • Tityroi: Daimons under the Lord Dionysos.
  • Triptolemos: God of the wheat mill and sowing of the grain.
  • Triton: Messenger God of the Sea.
  • Trophonios: Chthonic God who built the site of the Oracle of Delphi.
  • Tutelina: A Goddess who watches over stored grain and is responsible for protecting crops brought in during harvest time. She, along with other harvesting Goddesses Secia and Messia, had three pillars with altars dedicated for them in the Circus Maximus.
  • Tyche (Fortuna): Usually worshiped more frequently as Eutykhia (Eutychia), She is a Goddess of good fortune, luck, prosperity, and success.
  • Vacuna: Goddess of agriculture worshiped throughout parts of central Italia.
  • Vallonia: Goddess of valleys.
  • Vaticanus: The God who opens a newborn’s mouth to wail.
  • Veritas: Goddess of truth.
  • Vertumnes: God of seasons, change, vegetative growth, gardens and fruit trees.
  • Viduus: God who separated the soul and the body after death.
  • Viriplacaa: Goddess of marital strife who protected women. She had a sanctuary on the Palatine Hill.
  • Vitumnus: God who gave life to children in the womb.
  • Volturnus: God of the waters.
  • Volupia: A divinity whose name appears to signify “willingness.” She had a temple, the Sacellum Volupiae, on the Via Nova by the Porta Romana, where sacrifices were offered to the Angerona.
  • Volutina: A Goddess who induces “envelopes” (Latin involumenta), or leaf sheaths, to form.
  • Volumna: Goddess who protects the nursery.
  • Zeus-Helios (Iuppiter, Iovis, Sol): The Nous, Demiurge, King of Heaven and the All
    • Zeus-Ammon: Graeco-Egyptian Zeus.
    • Zeus Brontios (Iuppiter Tonans): Zeus the Thunderer.
    • Zeus Dolikhenos (Iuppiter Dolichenus): Canaanite Zeus.
    • Zeus Kapitolinos (Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus): Zeus the Best and the Greatest, as He was traditionally worshiped in Rome.
    • Zeus Ktêsios (Zeus Ctesius): Zeus who protects the household.
    • Sabazios: Phrygian Zeus associated with horses and snakes.
    • Tinia: Etruscan Zeus.

 

Bibliography

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Clark, Dennis. “The Gods as Henads in Iamblichus.” The International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 4, no. 1 (2010): 54-74. doi:10.1163/187254710×492901.

Ekklesia Neoplatonismos Theourgia. “Ekklesia Neoplatonismos Theourgia Catechism.” Ekklesia Neoplatonismos Theourgia. Accessed July 17, 2017. http://theourgia.org/catechism/

Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, and Wilmer Cave (France) Wright. The works of the Emperor Julian. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.

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