Although little known today and generally neglected in favor of more recent traditions (Western Esotericism or otherwise), stone lore had a not insignificant role in Greco-Roman polytheism, and several lapidaries (books about gems, gr. lithika) survive to this day.
On Stones and Their Powers
A small compilation of astrological lore, tying specific stones and engravings to the seven planets. Although this is now the only pagan example, texts of this kind must have been very common, as they were common in the Middle Ages, especially in the Islamicate world.