Apollo is a solar God of the arts, oracles, knowledge, medicine and light, and one of the most complex of the Gods.

Apollo’s most notable role is a God of the arts, being the leader of the Muses (nine Goddesses associated with various arts). He is further remarkable as a God of truth. Not only is Apollo a God of many prophets and oracles, but He is also the founder of philosophy. Apollo is the interpreter for us of the fairest purposes that are to be found from Zeus-Helios.


Apollo is Zeus-Helios

In Julian’s Hymn to King Helios, Apollo is identified as a lower manifestation of Zeus-Helios. Julian writes in connection to Zeus-Helios’ position as a founder of Rome, where among the arguments provided are the Temple of Apollo Palatinus being a temple of King Helios. Here he writes that “Apollo also dwells on the Palatine Hill, and Helios himself under this name of his which is commonly known to all and familiar to all.”. He writes arguments in support of this, writing that Zeus-Helios “comprehends in himself all the principles of the fairest intellectual synthesis, is himself Apollo the leader of the Muses” and with that sharing an “imperishableness and abiding sameness with Apollo,” and that Apollo ultimately “differs in no way from Helios.”



Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, and Wilmer Cave. Wright. The works of emperor Julian. London: Heinemann etc., 1962.

Kupperman, Jeffrey S. Living theurgy: a course in Iamblichus philosophy, theology and theurgy. London: Avalonia, 2014.

Sallustius, “On the Gods and the Cosmos”, 4th Century AD, accessed May 17, 2017, http://www.platonic-philosophy.org/files/Sallustius%20-%20On%20the%20Gods%20(Taylor).pdf