Creation of the Cosmos
In the beginning, there was only Chaos.
This chaos was a formless void. It had no order, the laws of nature weren’t fixed, and any proportion between things was purely accidental. The word chaos (χάος) itself could indicate two things. It could relate to χέειν, to “pour,” which conveys a sense of watery chaos. Alternatively, it could relate to χαῦνος, meaning “spongy” or “porous,” which gives the sense of alternating fullness and void distributed throughout a substance. It is from this formless potential that the Celestial Demiurge, Zeus-Helios, rose from, and whenceforth the ordering act of creation began.
The Demiurge received from Aion, the primordial source of Being, the creative power to craft and set in order the cosmos. The Demiurge established the elements, such as fire, water, and so forth, and out of them, He created the World Soul. He established about the law of nature through the direction of His spoken word, the Logoi, which are His thoughts that are lower manifestations of the higher principles (such as the Forms). It is important to point out that the word cosmos holds a meaning of arrangement, and thus suggests that the universe has a particular orderly arrangement to it.
There was no creatio ex nihilo (“creation from nothing”), because the universe would not come to be formed if there was nothing that could create it. Rather, the act of creation was creatio ex materia (“creation from [pre-existent] matter”). The creation of the cosmos was the ordering of pre-cosmic disorder, which is done through the Demiurge’s and other Gods’ direction of the logoi. This logoi then infuses into hylē, or “matter,” which is an empty receptive substance that comes from the One who through Aion. Once the hylē is informed by the logoi, it is shaped by it and forms into matter as we know it. In short, order rose out of chaos thanks to the Demiurge’s ordering of the cosmos.
But what was this entire order that Zeus-Helios set forth based on? The answer is Aion itself, who is the model upon which the Cosmos are based on, and is described as the “Essence of Being” from which all Being stems from. Aion being the cosmic model is important, because it tells us about the nature of the cosmos: that the cosmos are modeled by King Helios based upon something that is eternal, unchangeable, good, and beyond generation. As the blessed Plato writes in the Timaeus, “Everyone will see that [the Celestial Demiurge] must have looked to the eternal, for the world is the fairest of creations and He is the best of causes” (Plato, Timaeus 29a).
Though the universe is finite, the act of cosmogenesis isn’t something that happened at some arbitrary prior point in the chronological past, but it is rather a process that is eternal, being always present in illo tempore, and is therefore always accessible through theourgia (Butler 2010, 142). The Timaeus’ chronology merely portrays multiple ontological levels of being simultaneously present in the material world. The separation from materiality and its principles is, quite simply, impossible. The entire material world came to exist simultaneously as the Demiurge came to exist; meaning there isn’t any temporal or spatial separation between the eternal Forms and their material counterparts. And given the viable translation of logos as “word,” we can put forward the poetic notion that the Demiurge is continuously singing the cosmos and our world into its form.
Creation of Mankind
When the common father and King of all things, Zeus-Helios, was setting all things in order, there fell from Him drops of sacred blood, and from these drops of divine blood arose the race of man (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307). It, therefore, follows that we are all kinsmen, as the Gods tell us through Plato, and as we ought to believe, that we are all descended from the Gods; all being members of the same family, which is ultimately that of Zeus (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307). Therefore, His greatest concern is the love of mankind and the protection of His family.
It is detailed in the sacred Chaldean Oracles that Love (Eros) is the first creation of the divine Zeus (Chaldean Oracles, fr. 42). He then fills each soul with a “deep eros” to bring them back to the Gods (Chaldean Oracles, fr. 43). This indicates that what part of the soul the Demiurge creates is, truly, filled with Love.
We bear witness that at creation there was more than two people, for if there were merely two people our laws wouldn’t show such great divergence among peoples, the tongues of people wouldn’t be so vastly different, the forms of people wouldn’t take on such a wide array of beauty, nor would it be likely that the whole earth was filled with people by one man and woman; even if the woman bore many children at a time to their husband (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 305-307). Rather, it is to be understood that many people of a great diversity came into the world at once, which gave rise to the vast differences among the peoples of our world (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307).
The Gods “all together had given birth” to humankind (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307), with many humans coming forth who had been allotted to the Gods “who rule over births” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307); “and they brought them forth, receiving their souls from the Demiurge from eternity” (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 307). They then give their shape and culture appropriate to the climate and country they originated from (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 357).
The many deities are ethnarch Gods and protectors of cities whose own functions had been assigned by Zeus-Helios (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 345). Each people have ethnarch Gods, who are subservient to Zeus-Helios as viceroys are to a King (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 359). These national Gods watch over their people, with their own order of Angels, Daimons, Heroes, and a particular order of spirits which obey and work for the higher powers. All other creator Gods are not competitors of Zeus-Helios, but rather they are His children and helpers (Flavius Claudius Iulianus I, 345) (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 359).
We, therefore, garner that though the world has an array of diversity, our diversity is all ultimately many great paths that lead to one divine truth, for uniformity precedes multiplicity. For this, we are all ultimately kinsmen, as all of humanity is derived from the blood of Zeus-Helios. The great diversity of the world is not an accident, but rather it was divinely fashioned on purpose.
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